Trichodermareesei is an efficient host for the formation of heterologous and homologous proteins thanks to its capability to produce hydrolytic enzymes. In the most conducive culture conditions, the most productive strains of T.reesei can secrete and produce around 100 g/L of protein. This efficient cell factory has been used by biotechnologists in the mass production of proteins. Since this is formed by nature, it is an ideal and important organism for other scientific endeavors by humankind. Its phased development and growth among laboratories called for a more efficient protein expression that evoked more research and development of functional uses on the subject protein.
Scientists utilize recombinant protein expression mechanisms and technologies to revolutionize life sciences and apply these to industrial and practical uses for humankind. The genes encoded from this fungus have a dramatically abundant yield of proteins, with evolving and improved biological characteristics for future studies. Read more to learn about the protein expression in Trichodermareesei.
Protein Expression in TrichodermaReesei
There are several methods for protein expression using T.reesei. One of the most common and efficient methods involves utilizing cellulolytic gene promoters that are native and strongly activated. One of these is the cellobiohydrolase (cbh1) promoter. This promoter can be readily and heavily activated within the environment of certain inducing compounds such as lactose, cellulose and its variations, and other compounds that are likewise activated. These cellulolytic genes are then transcribed with a combination of factors, including CREI, XYR1, and ACEI. The secretion and simultaneous expression of a wide range of hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzymes happen after exposure to these strong inducing compounds. With this, around 80% of the protein secretions are either endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, or xylanases. The most dominant secretion comes from Cellobiohydrolase I, which comprises more than 50% of the protein secretions.
The Post-genome Era in T.reesei
The post-genome era has brought about a handful of tools for scientists, including but not limited to genome-wide, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The protein production factories will benefit from these methods, especially since t.reesei will prove to be a more viable protein producer. Moreover, in this era, it was discovered that t.reesei comprises a wide amount of hemicellulases and cellulases beneficial for biomass degradation. Since it is the most studied filamentous fungi at the moment, it also has been used as a cellulase source for industrial applications. T.reesei also has been discovered to remain competitive in an environment of microorganisms through changing its nutritional composition to adapt therein. Finally, t.reesei in the post-genome era can develop and degrade polymers more efficiently and thrive on numerous substrates. Thus, protein conservation is also more likely, with glycoside hydrolases (GH) dominating with 51%. This protein is unique to the t.reesei.
Large-scale Production of TrichodermaReesei
One of the aspects that motivate the production and protein expression in Trichodermareesei is its crucial industrial use. It is known to be a major platform and component for industrial enzyme production. Its production dates back to the 1940s, and it continues to function as a model organism for research on cellulase enzyme complex and cellulose degradation. T.reesei also started to play a crucial role in the manufacture of industrial bioethanol that can help solve oil crises around the world. Laboratories have also found that the isolated and wild type of t.reesei — which is the QM6A — can develop into high-level production strains and establish new genetic tools. These tools will enhance these strains and maximize productivity when it comes to laboratory tests and findings.
Nowadays, t.reesei has a prominent identity among laboratories as an easy-to-handle, productive, and robust cell factory that can produce more types of proteins more efficiently and safely. Its native cellulase complex has paved the way for more advanced molecular biological tools, such as mating and bioinformatics. Moreover, its use for more efficient biofuel production has awakened the world to utilize these efficient filamentous fungi and test their efficacy among several laboratories globally.
Metabolic engineering is also a means of producing new and proven effective strategies to study and produce mutants that can yield more hydrolytic enzymes, which in turn, calls for a higher level of protein expression in t.reesei. Finally, there is an increased number of synthetic biological tactics that scientists can now utilize to create inducers of enzyme synthezitation for the large production of bioethanol and biomass degradation.